Everything you need to know about BhCG testing or pregnancy testing

What is hCG hormone?
The hCG or BhCG ​​hormone is human chorionic gonadotrophin, which is measured as a pregnancy test. The levels of this hormone are readily available through blood tests and urine tests. HCG is an important hormone that is important for the preservation and spread of pregnancy. This hormone is produced by trophoblast, a group of embryonic cells whose origin is in pairs.

About 6 days after fertilization of the egg with sperm, the embryo reaches the wall of the uterus and implants it. At that moment, the hCG produced by trophoblast can be transmitted to the mother's bloodstream, which makes it possible to diagnose it with sensitive laboratory tests. As the embryo and the pairs grow, the hCG hormone enters the mother's blood stream.

In the first weeks of pregnancy, the amount of hCG in the blood doubles in two to three days. If the rate of increase in this hormone is significantly lower during the first 30 days of gestation, there may be a problem during pregnancy, such as a dead fetus or an ectopic pregnancy.

How does hCG hormone visible in the blood?
Current techniques can only detect hCG hormone supplements from the third or fourth weeks of pregnancy since the last menstruation period. Since the fourth menstrual period begins when the next menstrual period begins, women are usually advised to wait until the next menstruation, as there is a potential false negative result in this test.

The result of the pregnancy test is as follows:
Women who are not pregnant or who are less than 3 weeks of pregnancy: less than 5 milligrams per milliliter
3 weeks of pregnancy: between 5 and 50
4 weeks of pregnancy: between 5 and 426
5 weeks of pregnancy: Between 18 and 7340
6 weeks of pregnancy: between 1080 and 56500
7 to 8 weeks of pregnancy: between 7,650 and 229,000
9 to 12 weeks of pregnancy: between 25,700 and 288,000
13 to 16 weeks of pregnancy: between 13,300 and 254,000
17 to 24 weeks of pregnancy: Between 4060 and 165,400
25 to 40 weeks of pregnancy: between 3640 and 117,000
Note: The values ​​listed are not a general rule, and other laboratory values ​​may be different. If hormonal values ​​are different, this does not necessarily mean no pregnancy. The most important issue is the rate of growth of the hormone in the first few weeks of pregnancy.

HCG levels for multi-prenatal pregnancies are usually higher because they produce more amounts of this hormone. The peak in hCG usually occurs at the tenth week of pregnancy. Then these levels dropped until the 20th week and then followed a steady trend or very slow decline.

Note: You can not use these values ​​to determine your pregnancy week.

Probably after all the above questions, this question also fails in your mind as to what is the difference between the two terms hCG and BhCG?

It should be noted that the hCG hormone is composed of two alpha and beta subunits, the alpha subset of which is similar to those of other hormones such as FSH and LH. And the type of beta is unique and is not found in any other hormone. Therefore, to reduce the probability of error, most laboratories use beta to measure hCG levels.

What forms of BhCG ​​testing are measured?
The BhCG ​​test is quantitatively and qualitatively tested. The qualitative type, which is measured by the name of the Bibi check at home and with the urine sample, is only to know whether it is positive or negative. However, the type of BhCG ​​test is presented with a blood sample and in the laboratory with exact values.

 

It should be noted that pregnancy testing with CBC can not provide a definitive answer and it is essential to have a blood test to achieve a definitive diagnosis of pregnancy. Most laboratories use reference values ​​to interpret pregnancy testing:

hCG less than 5 ml: negative pregnancy outcome
hCG Between 5 and 25: Uncertain outcome, usually does not show current pregnancy. This test should be repeated three days later.
hCG higher than 25: positive pregnancy outcome
Of course, in most laboratory centers, values ​​above 25 are used for the positive outcome of the pregnancy test. Usually, 7 to 14 days after sex, it is usually necessary to implant the fetus in the womb and reach sufficiently adequate hCG to the mother's bloodstream. So doing a pregnancy test only one week later will increase the probability of false negative results because not enough hCG hormone has yet been produced in the body to be seen in the test.

In women with an irregular menstrual cycle or a delayed menstruation, interpretation of the results is somewhat more difficult. Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant women be tested only 14 days after unprotected sex. The hCG hormone in the urine shows fewer values, so the probability of a pregnancy test error is more than negative.

Ultimately, the use of contraceptive drugs, postpartum pill, antidepressants, antibiotics, etc. can not result in a negative result, so it's not a concern. On the other hand, infections can not change the results of pregnancy testing.

Probability of false positives:
Fetal death in the womb
Women being treated for pregnancy
In women with a recent history of mononucleosis
In women of high age and near menopause
There are some uterus tumors
You can simply use the membership in Trita and enter the user's area of ​​the smart doctor system, you will also be able to record the test in Trita and interpret the amount in your test without the need for a physician. Please check the blood tests section after you arrive.

References:

  1. https://www.mdsaude.com/en/2018/05/beta-hcg-pregnancy-diagnosis.html
  2. https://labtestsonline.org/tests/hcg-tumor-marker

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Fatemeh Ghorbani

Fatemeh Ghorbani

فاطمه قربانی هستم، لیسانس ژنتیک، به علوم نوین پزشکی و ایمونولوژی علاقمندم. از شما دوست گرامی بخاطر مطالعه این مقاله و همچنین مجموعه تریتا بخاطر فرصت انتشار مطالبم در راستای کمک به ارتقای دانش کمال تشکر دارم. شاد باشید و سلامت

my name is Fatemeh Ghorbani, I have a B.S in genetics and interested in immunology and medical science. I believe that, even into the smallest acts, should be put our heart, mind and soul. Thank you for reading my article