High blood sugar in diabetics and prevention methods

Your body needs glucose for proper function. Cells rely on glucose for their energy. Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a sign to diagnose diabetes. When the level of blood sugar is very high, it means that the body has not used this amount properly, or that insulin is not needed in the body.

The body supplies its sugar with food. Carbohydrates like fruit, milk, potatoes, bread and rice are the biggest sources of sugar in the regular diet. The body transports the carbohydrates into glucose or body fat, and then passes through the bloodstream to other organs in the body.

Insulin requirement:

However, to use glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin promotes the transfer of glucose to cells, especially muscle cells.

People with type 1 diabetes do not produce the body's insulin to absorb glucose, so these people should take insulin that the insulin enters into the body under subcutaneous injections. People with type 2 diabetes may have insulin, but their bodies do not use, their body cells are resistant to insulin production, but insufficient insulin production is possible in these people.

People with diabetes may have high blood sugar if they do not control their blood sugar level (using insulin, medications and proper food planning). For example, if a person with type 1 diabetes does not have enough insulin before eating, glucose increases and leads to hyperglycemia.

Endocrinologists will describe the amount of blood sugar appropriate for the physical condition. The levels of each individual will change based on physical conditions such as pregnancy, age, and other health conditions.

Fasting blood glucose
This means that at least 8 hours have passed since the last meal. The recommended range for non-diabetics is 70 to 130 mg / dL. If the blood glucose level is above 130, it means fasting hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. Fasting hyperglycaemia is a common symptom of diabetes.

High blood sugar after meals
There is a case of high blood sugar that occurs after meals. During this type of hyperglycemia, your liver does not stop sugar production, while normally it stops after eating and storing glucose as glycogen (energy storage). If after a meal (1-2 hours after eating) the blood glucose level is more than 180 mg / dl, this hyperglycemia is a type of meal or reaction.

However, these conditions are not only seen in people with advanced diabetes. Some medications and diseases can trigger these conditions, including beta-blockers, steroids and bulimia (periodic eating offspring). This article focuses on hyperglycemia caused by diabetes.

Signs of hyperglycemia or high blood sugar
Early symptoms of hyperglycemia or high blood glucose may be helpful as a warning, even before glucose levels are measured. Common symptoms include:

Increasing thirst or hunger
Frequent urination
Headache
Blurred vision
Fatigue

 


Ketoacidosis: When hyperglycemia is exacerbated in people with type 1 diabetes.
In case of type 1 diabetes, diagnosis and treatment of hyperglycaemia is of particular importance because if these conditions get untreated, they can lead to ketoacidosis. In this case, because of the absence of glucose, the cells of the body should use ketones (toxic acids) as a source of energy. Ketoacidosis occurs when ketones increase in the blood. These conditions are very dangerous and can lead to diabetes or even death. These conditions rarely affect type 2 diabetes.

Many of the symptoms of ketoacidosis are similar to hyperglycemia. Signs of ketoacidosis include:

High levels of ketones in the urine (causing a change in the smell of urine)
Shortness of breath
Breathtaking smell of fruit
Dry mouth
In addition, gastric pain, nausea, vomiting and confusion may be associated with ketoacidosis.
Some people with diabetes need to regularly measure their ketone according to the doctor's instructions. Ketone testing is done in two ways: using urine or using blood. To test for urine, a special test strip is inserted into the urine. To test ketones, one meter and a test strip are used. This test is done just like a blood glucose test.

Hyperglycemic Hypermicular Hyperglycemia Syndrome: (HHNS) when hyperlipidemia in people with type 2 diabetes is exacerbated.
The disease is rare, but you should be well informed about it. HHNS is likely to occur at the time of illness, and older people become more likely to become infected. When the blood glucose level rises quickly, the body throws it out of the urine to relieve it, so the thirst will be created in person.

As you know, the body needs water during illness, but unfortunately, it is sometimes difficult to supply the body with water. For example, in the event of illness and lack of water to the body, blood glucose levels continue to rise, and eventually they can reach a high level and lead to diabetic sufferers.

To prevent this syndrome, try to accurately control your blood glucose levels when you are sick. You should also be able to quickly diagnose the signs and symptoms of HHNS, including symptoms

References:

  1. https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/hyperglycemia/hyperglycemia-when-your-blood-glucose-level-goes-too-high

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Fatemeh Ghorbani

Fatemeh Ghorbani

فاطمه قربانی هستم، لیسانس ژنتیک، به علوم نوین پزشکی و ایمونولوژی علاقمندم. از شما دوست گرامی بخاطر مطالعه این مقاله و همچنین مجموعه تریتا بخاطر فرصت انتشار مطالبم در راستای کمک به ارتقای دانش کمال تشکر دارم. شاد باشید و سلامت

my name is Fatemeh Ghorbani, I have a B.S in genetics and interested in immunology and medical science. I believe that, even into the smallest acts, should be put our heart, mind and soul. Thank you for reading my article