Pain and its root
Most people experience pain during their lives. Pain serves an important purpose: Warns when the body is in danger. Think when your hands touch a hot stove. But persistent pain causes discomfort and poor quality of life. Pain is the reason for the number one referral to the doctor.
A bunch of drugs, called opioids, is often used to treat pain. One reason why Doctor Michael Oshinsky, a pain specialist at the NIH National Institutes of Health, explains is that opioids are beneficial for many. Opioids can stop the body from treating pain at many levels, from the skin to the brain. Because they work in the whole body, they say opioids can be effective for a variety of pain types.
But opioids also produce and enhance the feelings of happiness and well-being: the more people use them, the more they desire to use them. This can lead to addiction, or continue to use opium, despite the horrific consequences. Oshinsky explains that scientists are still unable to produce opioids that reduce pain without effecting addiction.
The longer people receive opioids, the more they need to have the same effect. This tolerance is called. Using higher doses of opioids increases the risk of overdose. The United States is currently in the epicide crisis. Every day more than 100 Americans die of excessive consumption of opioids. This number includes deaths due to prescription drugs.
We do not need better opiates. "We need to avoid dependence on opioid substances to treat pain," Oksinsky says. NIH is conducting research on new and more precise methods for treating pain. It is also trying to develop new therapies to combat opioid abuse and addiction. Opioids are not always needed. Opioids are often prescribed for acute pain. Acute pain is short-term pain, a type that has been experienced after an accident or an operation. Dr. Dena Fisher, a dental health specialist at NIH, explains that other drugs may also be useful for acute pain even after surgery.
People may think that prescription drugs work better for acute pain. But Fisher says that using something other than opioid can be very important for controlling acute pain in areas such as dentistry. Many people who receive opioid dentists are adolescents or adult adults who have never used opioids before. Fischer says research is underway to make it clear that those who receive a copy of opioids as a teenager tend to use opioids for non-medical purposes.
Health care providers who decide that the patient needs opioids are now encouraged to receive only a small amount of opioid at a time. People who receive shorter versions are less likely to use pills more than prescribed or use them after pain has been lost. It also reduces the likelihood that pills are used by others.
When the pain is chronic
Managing chronic pain is more complex than acute pain management. More than 25 million people in the United States only have chronic pain, chronic pain that lasts more than three months. Many things cause chronic pain. For example, Oushinsky says: "A muscle that is damaged in an accident may be relatively quick to recover. But if a nerve is also damaged, it can continue to signal pain after muscle repair by the body. Dr David Williams, a pain researcher at the University of New York at the University of Michigan, explains that other forms of chronic pain are due to brain changes. When these changes occur, the brain still understands the pain even if the injury is improved.
For people with this type of chronic pain, sometimes called central pain, opioids and some other types of pain medications can actually worsen pain. Research has shown that speaking therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, can help many people with chronic central pain. Williams explains that these types of treatments emphasize different ways of behaving in different ways, and they may change the perception of pain.
Pain is a mixture of emotional and emotional experiences. Cognitive behavioral therapy can also help people with chronic pain manage their health problems, such as sleep problems, tiredness, or difficulty focusing. This can increase the quality of life of people with chronic pain. This can have overlap effects. Williams says: pain and sleep processing, and thinking and creating all the same neurotransmitters in the brain. So, by improving something like sleep, you also improved pain.
Opsinsky says non-opioid drugs can help some people with chronic pain. Many of these drugs were first developed to cope with various health conditions, such as seizure, depression or anxiety. But they can also change the way that the brain controls the pain.
Oshinsky also adds: "Some people use devices that stimulate the nerves directly to prevent brain-to-heart pain signals from reaching the brain." Setup