What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the prostate (which is a small walnut gland in the male body and responsible for the production of semen, feeding and transferring sperm). This type of cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate cancer usually progresses slowly and initially limited to the prostate gland, which may not cause serious damage. Although some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and require minimal treatment and sometimes do not require treatment at all, however, some types of prostate cancer are progressive and can spread rapidly.
The more prostate cancer is detected earlier, especially when cancer is still limited to the prostate gland, the greater the chances of success in treating the disease.
Information on prostate
As mentioned, the prostate gland is as much as a walnut, which is present only in the male body. This gland produces a fluid that feeds sperm. The protein produced by the prostate, the prostatic antigen or PSA, helps keep sperm from retaining its fluid state. Increasing this protein in the blood can be one of the early signs of prostate cancer. In addition, the passageways of the urine and semen flow through the prostate. Prostate also plays an important role in the urinary system and is responsible for controlling urination. The tuber can narrow the urethra through thousands of small muscle fibers and block the flow of urine.
What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?
In the early stages, prostate cancer may not have any signs. But prostate cancers that have advanced have the following signs and symptoms:
Problems starting urination
Urinary frequency (including frequent urination at night)
Problem in keeping urine
Feeling pain during urination
Decreased urine flow
The presence of blood in semen
Uncomfortable feeling in the pelvic area
In advanced cancers, there may be signs of bone pain in the spine, thigh bone, pelvis, and ribs, as well as bone fractures. As advanced cancer reaches the spine and affects the spinal cord, it is likely that problems such as weakness Feet and incontinence of stool and urine are also observed in the patient.
Causes of Prostate Cancer
It is not clear what exactly causes prostate cancer. Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when some prostate cells get out of their natural state. Small changes occur in the shape and size of prostate cells, which is called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or pin.
Nearly half of all men over the age of 50 have PINs, but only high grade pins are considered to be precursors and require further examination, not low grade pins. Mutations in abnormal cells of DNA can also lead to the growth of abnormal cells and increase their rate of division even from normal cells.
Even when the natural cells around the cancer cells die, these abnormal cells still survive. The accumulation of abnormal cells forms a tumor that attacks the surrounding tissues. Some abnormal cells can even be broken down and spread to other parts of the body, which is referred to as metastatic phenomena.
Prostate cancer has four stages. In the zero stage, cancer cells are still limited to the prostate gland, and in the four stages, they are transmitted to far-flung organs. Successful prostate cancer treatment is largely dependent on the diagnosis of the disease at or near zero and before metastasis or the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.
Risk factors for prostate cancer
Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer in one person include:
Age: The risk of prostate cancer increases with age.
Race: For reasons that are still unclear, black men are more likely to have prostate cancer than white males.
Family history: If one or more men in a family have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, the likelihood of other men in the family increases. In addition, genes that increase the risk of developing breast cancer, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, as well as a high incidence of breast cancer in the family, can also increase prostate cancer risk.
Obesity: Obese males are more likely to develop prostate cancer, especially advanced ones, which have a hard treatment.
Geography: Prostate cancer in North America, Northwest Europe, the Caribbean and Australia is more often seen, and the cause of this incident is still unclear.
Diet: Studies have shown that excessive consumption of red meat and high fat dairy products increases the likelihood of a person suffering from prostate cancer.
Use of certain medications: Some studies have shown that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. However, there is a lot of research about the use of these drugs and death from illness. Therefore, taking these drugs to reduce the risk of prostate cancer is a controversial issue.
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
Diagnosis of prostate cancer begins with a physical examination and a question about a medical history. If the patient has symptoms associated with prostate cancer, or if he or she tests a high level of PSA