What is a prostate test or a PSA test?

This test measures the amount of prostate antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA is a protein produced by cancerous and non-cancerous prostate tissues, a small gland below the men's bladder. PSA, found in semen, is produced in the prostate. Quantities of PSA are commonly found in the bloodstream.


PSA testing can detect high levels of PSA, which may indicate prostate cancer. However, many other conditions, such as enlargement of the prostate or inflammation, can also increase the PSA level. Therefore, determining how much high PSA can mean this is a bit complicated.

There are many controversial recommendations on PSA testing. Determining the necessity of performing this test will depend upon the physician's condition and condition.

What is the need for this experiment?
Prostate cancer is a common cancer and has a high incidence of cancer deaths. Early diagnosis may be an important tool in proper and temporary treatment. Men with prostate cancer may have high levels of PSA. However, many non-cancerous conditions can also increase PSA levels in men. Although this test represents an exact amount, it can not be used as a diagnostic criterion.

PSA testing is only used as a tool for screening prostate cancer early symptoms. Another screening test, which is usually done in addition to the PSA test, is also performed on the rectal test. In this experiment, the doctor has entered the prostate gland in the rectum and rectum with a finger inserted, and by touching or pressing on the prostate, it may be able to judge the abnormal masses or hard areas.

Neither the PSA test nor the rectal clinical trial will provide enough information to the doctor about the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Abnormal results in these tests may lead to the administration of prostate biopsy by the physician. During this procedure, samples of tissue are removed for laboratory examination. Cancer diagnosis is based on biopsy results.

Reasons for PSA testing:
For men who have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer, PSA may be used for the following:

Calculate the effectiveness of the treatment
Review the recurrence of cancer
One key issue is the general prognosis of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer usually progresses slowly over the years. Therefore, a man may have prostate cancer, but never develop a serious health problem during his lifetime.


PSA testing limits include:
PSA-enhancing agents. In addition to cancer, other conditions that can increase the PSA level include prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) and inflammation or prostate infection (prostatitis). Also, the level of PSA typically increases with age.

PSA Reducing Factors. Some medications used to treat BPH or urine and high doses of certain chemotherapy drugs may decrease the PSA level. Obesity can also reduce PSA levels.

Misleading results. This test does not always provide accurate results. A high level of PSA does not necessarily mean cancer, and many men with prostate cancer have normal levels of PSA.

Reference range:
Less than 4ng / ml
But with the increase in age, the PSA rises.
Less than 50 years: <2.6
59-50 years: <3.6
69-60 years: <4.6
Over 70 years of age: <6.6
The factors influencing the outcome of this test and how it is prepared to do so:
Due to the fact that this test can not distinguish between the serious factors affecting the increase in test values ​​as well as other side factors, there will be a possibility of a test error due to external factors. So, it's a good idea to get ready for this test before having this test done.

One of the reasons for this test is the presence of prostatitis in people under 50 years of age. Prostatitis is the most common prostate problem in men less than 50 years old. Prostatitis caused by bacteria can be treated with antibiotics. Another common type of prostatitis is called non-bacterial prostatitis, which can be harder to handle and last long.
Medical measures can increase the value of this test. One of the most commonly used methods is a blow to the bladder catheter. One of the other causes is prostate or bladder examination, which involves inserting the tube and sampling. Therefore, it takes two to three weeks before doing these PSA tests.
In men over the age of 50, benign hyperplasia of the prostate gland (BPH) is one of the common reasons for rising PSA test values. This condition does not mean prostate cancer. This disease does not require treatment unless under frequent conditions and urinary problems.
Urinary tract infection. Any infection near the prostate gland, including urinary tract infection, can stimulate prostate cells and increase the PSA. Therefore, it is better to postpone the test until infections are completely resolved. Having BPH increases the risk of developing urinary tract infections.
Ejaculation is a potential factor in raising the mild PSA test values. In addition to ejaculation, the rectum clinical examination can also be a great success. So doctors usually ask for a test before the clinical examination. On the other hand, ejaculation should be avoided at least 2-3 days before the test.

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  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/psa-test/about/pac-20384731
  2. https://www.everydayhealth.com/prostate-cancer/non-cancerous-reasons-your-psa-levels-are-high.aspx


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Fatemeh Ghorbani

Fatemeh Ghorbani

فاطمه قربانی هستم، لیسانس ژنتیک، به علوم نوین پزشکی و ایمونولوژی علاقمندم. از شما دوست گرامی بخاطر مطالعه این مقاله و همچنین مجموعه تریتا بخاطر فرصت انتشار مطالبم در راستای کمک به ارتقای دانش کمال تشکر دارم. شاد باشید و سلامت

my name is Fatemeh Ghorbani, I have a B.S in genetics and interested in immunology and medical science. I believe that, even into the smallest acts, should be put our heart, mind and soul. Thank you for reading my article