What is hemophilia?
Hemophilia is a disorder that causes the blood to not properly clot, resulting in severe and prolonged hemorrhage. Excessive hemorrhage in people with hemophilia is commonly due to coagulation factor VII deficiency, which is associated with hemophilia type A, the most common type of hemophilia. Hemorrhage may occur spontaneously after surgery, which can lead to the penetration of blood into the joints, muscles, mouth, nose and, eventually, potentially into the brain. It affects people's gender and is seen in men more than women.
As the body produces fewer coagulation factors, hemophilia becomes more severe. The condition is most often diagnosed in the first year of life of the baby or even during the mother's pregnancy. In some cases, hemophilia is only detected after a severe hemorrhage due to an injury, blow, or surgery.
Hemophilia is not curable at present, but there are some drugs that can compensate for the shortage of coagulation factors and control bleeding in patients with hemophilia.
Symptoms of hemophilia
1- Bleeding longer than usual
This bleeding may occur following an injury or self-harm. Self-hemorrhage is a bleeding that has no obvious and distinct cause and usually occurs in patients with severe hemophilia.
2. Internal bleeding (such as hemorrhage in the joints and muscles)
Internal bleeding, in addition to the joints and muscles, may also occur in the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. Nosebleeds and gums are signs of this type of internal bleeding. The knees, the elbows and the ankles are parts that are more likely to become bruised, due to blood clotting due to internal bleeding.
Factors such as a part of the skin or muscle, scratching, dental treatments, injections, impacts, and such things can lead to severe bleeding due to poor blood coagulation.
4. Large or deep bruises
5- Pain, stiffness and swelling of the joints
6. Blood in the stool
7. Blood in the urine or hematuria
8. Bleeding from the rectum
Menorrhagia or abnormal menstrual periods in women or possible bleeding during pregnancy or after delivery
11. Irrational irritation in newborns that occurs with discomfort.
Causes of Hemophilia and Risk Factors
About two thirds of cases, hemophilia is a hereditary and genetic condition. For this reason, the risk factors for this disease are:
Having a family history of hemophilia or other bleeding disorders
Being male (because men are more likely to have hemophilia due to having an X chromosome).
Women can also have hemophilia, but their probability is negligible.
In about one-third of cases, hemophilia is caused by a spontaneous mutation. In these cases, the change that occurs in the gene associated with blood coagulation is not inherited.
All ethnicities and races may be affected by hemophilia, and the race has no effect on hemophilia.
In some rare cases, if the immune system attacks blood coagulation factors, the person may have acquired hemophilia.
Diagnosis and treatment of hemophilia
Hemophilia is usually diagnosed by a hematologist or a physician specializing in the treatment of blood-related diseases. Diagnosis of this condition is based on family history, blood tests to determine the time of blood clotting and blood coagulation factor testing.
The most common way to treat hemophilia is to inject blood coagulation factors into the body to control bleeding. People with Type A hemophilia usually use FVIII products derived from plasma human plasma donors. Plasma donation is different from blood donation because it only receives a portion of the blood of the donor. Type B hemophilia usually focuses on getting FIX product.
Additionally, people with severe hemophilia type A are prevented from using a prophylactic protein called prophylaxis to prevent hemorrhages. This injection is performed approximately once a week.
To control bleeding, people with mild hemophilia use anti-hormone drugs in the form of injections or nasal sprays.
Five natural methods to help control hemophilia
1- Prevention of falling down and other incidents
The following actions can be effective:
Emptying the house from obstacles that may cause a fall
Removing wires, cables and movable flooring such as carpets
Use the flashlight while walking in the dark
Cleaning the outside space of the house, such as the yard and the staircase
Stacking the stairs while up or down
Use Walker if needed
Sit down and get up with slow movements
Wear comfortable shoes and avoid wearing inappropriate shoes such as heel shoes
Caution when walking on Liz surfaces, especially after snow and rain
Cover the sharp edges of objects and home surfaces
Locking the door and drawer in the presence of a child with hemophilia at home
Use of knee and elbow protection especially for children with hemophilia
Avoid dealing with high-risk sports and enjoying safer sports such as swimming and golf
Inform the child, her teachers and friends about the risks of hemophilia
2- Use RICE to manage bleeding
RICE stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation, a term associated with a protocol for controlling bleeding.