Any cancerous growth that begins with the ovary is called ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women. Some factors, such as family history, age, pregnancy, overweight, and the like, can be considered as factors affecting the condition. It will be treated at a rate of 94% for at least 5 years if it is diagnosed at an early stage. Understanding the risk factors, symptoms, and testing can be effective in early diagnosis of ovarian cancer and its timely treatment. For this reason, in this paper, we intend to briefly review any of these issues.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer
One of the common symptoms of ovarian cancer is pain in the pelvic and stomach area. In most cases, this type of cancer begins with the outer ovarian cover. In some cases, the symptoms of ovarian cancer are similar to those of the prenatal syndrome or irritable bowel syndrome. Continuing problems with the bladder may also be a sign of ovarian cancer. While the cancer may not show any sign at the initial stages.
The symptoms listed may be related to non-cancerous ovarian disorders. The difference between the symptoms of ovarian cancer and other disturbances is their persistence and gradual deterioration over time.
Some of the primary symptoms associated with ovarian cancer include:
Pain in the pelvic region, abdomen, lower back or lower body
Diarrhea or heartburn
Feeling satiety while eating
Frequent urination and urinary excretion
Pain during sexual intercourse
Changes in bowel habits such as constipation and bloating
Following the development of ovarian cancer, the following symptoms may also be observed:
Problem with breathing
Loss of appetite
If a person has problems with bloating, pain and pressure in the abdomen or pelvis for more than a few weeks, you should check with the doctor.
Causes of ovarian cancer
What exactly causes ovarian cancer is a question that so far there is no definitive answer to it, but there are some factors that can be considered as risk factors for the disease. These factors are:
1. Family history
Women who have or have close relatives with ovarian or breast cancer are more likely to develop the disease than other women. Using screening tests, one can determine if a person carries genes that increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer.
In most cases, ovarian cancer occurs after menopause and in women over 63 years of age. The incidence of women under 40 is rare.
3- Pregnancy time
Women who have one or more full pregnancies, especially before age 26, are less likely to have ovarian cancer than others.
4. Lack of breastfeeding
If the baby is fed with breast milk, the risk of developing ovarian cancer in adulthood is reduced.
5. Non-use of contraceptives
Taking contraceptive pills for at least 3 to 6 months reduces the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Generally, increasing the use of contraceptive pills decreases the risk of this type of cancer.
In addition, the use of some contraceptive hormones for 3 years or more reduces the risk of developing ovarian cancer more than taking oral contraceptives.
6- Infertility treatment
Drugs for the treatment of infertility, especially if used for more than a year without pregnancy, increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer. In addition, infertile women are more at risk because of their inability to breastfeed, which is an effective factor in reducing the risk of the disease.
7. Breast cancer
Women with breast cancer are more likely to have ovarian cancer than others.
8. Hormone therapy
Hormone therapy seems to increase the risk of ovarian cancer. However, after stopping hormone therapy, the risk for this cancer will reach an average.
The incidence of ovarian cancer is more common in women with a BMI of over 30.
Women with endometriosis are about 30% more likely to have ovarian cancer than others.
It is also noteworthy that some surgeries associated with reproductive organs reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Tumor closure reduces the risk of ovarian cancer by up to two-thirds.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer
To diagnose this cancer, the doctor first examines the pelvic examination, any palpable abnormalities in the uterus or ovary. The doctor will also be mindful of the family's history of certain diseases. Some tests, such as blood tests, imaging tests, laparoscopy, colonoscopy, abdominal fluid aspiration, and biopsy are prescribed for diagnosis.
Treatment for ovarian cancer
Treatment of ovarian cancer is done according to the type of cancer, its degree of progression, and the general condition of the patient's body in a variety of ways:
Surgery to remove cancer is usually the first option in treating ovarian cancer.
In this operation, the uterus and surrounding tissues are removed.
3. Removing the lymph nodes
In this surgery, lymph nodes are removed in the pelvis and near the aorta.
4. Cytoreductive surgery
This surgery is used when the cancer has spread to the pelvic floor.
The use of cytotoxic drugs prevents the growth and growth of cancer cells.
6. Hormone in