Thyroid function and related diseases along with cause, symptom and treatment

Familiar with a variety of thyroid diseases, symptoms and their treatment
The thyroid gland is a parathyroid organ that lies in the neck. This gland is responsible for adjusting the body's metabolism hormones. In addition, thyroid function plays a role in the body, including:

Breathing
heart beat
Central and Peripheral Nervous System
body weight
Muscle strength
Menstrual cycle
Body temperature
Cholesterol level of the body
Thyroid uses iodine to produce vital hormones. Thyroxin, called T4, is the primary hormone produced by the glands. After delivery through the bloodstream to the tissues of the body, a small fraction of T4 is released from the glands into T3, which is the most active hormone. Since the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, disorders of these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid problems.

Types of thyroid disorders
There are certain types of thyroid disorders that include:

Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Goiter
Thyroid nodule
Thyroid cancer
1. Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism is caused by a small amount of thyroid hormone. This condition can be due to problems with the thyroid gland, the pituitary gland, or the hypothalamus. The symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

Fatigue
Constipation
Feeling cold
Muscle and joint pain
Depression
Long-term or over-menstrual bleeding in women
Weight Gain
Some common causes of hypothyroidism include:

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland)
Other types of thyroiditis (thyroiditis) such as acute thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis
Diagnosis
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the symptoms and results of blood tests that measure the level of TSH and sometimes thyroid hormone levels. Low levels of thyroxin and high levels of TSH represent low levels of thyroid function. In the past, doctors were not able to detect hypothyroidism, but using TSH sensitive tests, doctors are able to diagnose thyroid disorders. Since the TSH test is the best screening test, your doctor will probably check for TSH first, and if you need to test your thyroid hormone.

 

 


Treatment
In this case, the doctor prescribes a combination of levothyroxine and thyroid hormone, which varies depending on the dose. One or two weeks after starting treatment, you will notice that you feel less tired. It also gradually reduces cholesterol levels through the disease and may reverse any weight gain. Levothyroxine treatment is usually for life, but because your dose may need to change, your doctor will probably check the amount of TSH each year.

Hyperthyroidism thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism causes excessive thyroid hormone production. This disease is less common than hypothyroidism. In addition, it is usually associated with increased metabolism. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

Shake hands and feet
getting angry
increase of heart rate
Fatigue
Heat intolerance
Increase in bowel movement
Boost sweat
Increased Blood Concentration
Severe weight loss
Eyes out
Some of the most common causes of hyperthyroidism include:

Graves disease
Toxic goiter
Thyroid nodules that produce too much thyroid hormone
Excessive iodine intake
Diagnosis
Blood tests measure the level of thyroxine and TSH in your blood. High levels of thyroxine and low or non-TSH levels represent an overactive or overactive thyroid. The value of TSH is important. These tests are especially for older adults who may not have classical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Thyroid scan During this test, you inject a radioactive isotope into your vein. After a while, they take pictures of your throat using your imaging device.

Treatment
Drug treatment: Your doctor prescribes Methimazole and Propylthiouracil Propylthiouracil at different doses based on how active your thyroid is.
Radioactive iodine: Radioactive is absorbed by the thyroid gland and reduces its activity. These symptoms usually disappear within three to six months. Since this treatment can greatly reduce thyroid activity and the thyroid gland is called hypothyroidism, you may after that take thyroxine every day.
Beta blockers: These drugs are commonly used to treat high blood pressure. They do not reduce the level of thyroid activity, but they can reduce fast heartbeat and help prevent blood pressure. Side effects may include fatigue, headache, stomach upset, constipation, diarrhea or dizziness.
Surgery (thyroidectomy): If you are pregnant or you can not tolerate anti-thyroid drugs. You also do not want or can not use iodine and radiotherapy, you may prefer surgery to other therapies. Your doctor will remove thyroid gland in this surgery. In addition, you will need levothyroxin Levoxyl, Synthroid and ... for a long time to supply your body with the required amount of thyroid hormone.


Goiter disease
Goiter represents the enlargement of the thyroid gland, no matter what cause, goiter is not a specific disease. Goiter may be associated with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Diagnosis
Goiter associated with hyperthyroidism. Usually contains high levels of thyroid hormone in the blood and lower TSH levels than normal. Goiter can be caused by the production of abnormal antibodies. Blood tests can test the presence of these antibodies. Ultrasound is the easiest way to diagnose this disease, in which the goiter can be easily detected.

Treatment
for treatment

References:

  1. https://www.medicinenet.com/thyroid_disorders/article.htm#what_is_the_outlook_for_thyroid_disorders
  2. https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid/thyroid-gland-function
  3. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hyperthyroidism/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20373665
  4. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/goiter/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351834
  5. https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid-cancer/thyroid-cancer

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Masoome Rahi

Masoome Rahi

معصومه راهی هستم،کارشناس مترجمی زبان انگلیسی،مدت ۴ سال سابقه ترجمه دارم و اعتقاد دارم تنها راه رسیدن به موفقیت انجام کاریست که بهش علاقه داری

I m masoomeh rahi and im bachelors degree in english translation.i translated in 4 years and i believe that the only way to success is to love what to do